THE THOUGHTS OF NGUYEN TRAI- A VIETNAMESE STATESMAN IN THE 15TH CENTURY

Nguyễn Thị Chiêm

School of Liberal Arts,

Walailak University,

Thailand

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Abstract || Full text

Nguyen Trai is one of the fourteen Vietnamese national heroes, a great thinker of the 15th century and one of the three Vietnamese world cultural celebrities. He made a major contribution to the literary production and thought system of Vietnam. His thought is found and systemized from his literary works by Vietnamese modern scholars. They are divided into principal fields involving national independence, military strategy and politics, philosophy as well as humanism and justice. All of these were influenced by Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism and local patriotism. Vietnamese people see him as a bright example for the country’s younger generation. Some parts of his literary work are taught at schools. His life and work has become a source of inspiration for culture, art creation and academic research in Vietnam today. Keywords: Nguyen Trai, Vietnamese national heroes, national independence, humanism, patriotism, military strategy


ASEAN AND THE PRESENT INDIAN PRIME MINISTER, NARENDRA MODI

Deepika Singh

Department of Political Science,

Bharati College,

University of Delhi,

India

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Foreign policy is a key element of the public debate in India. India’s new Prime Minister Narendra Modi has signalled a commitment to continue his nation’s “Look East” foreign policy in a world of growing Asian influence. Since India initiated its Look East Policy in 1990s India's relationship with ASEAN remains one of the cornerstones of our foreign policy. It is worthwhile to mention here that India became a sectoral dialogue partner of ASEAN in 1992, which was upgraded to full dialogue partnership in 1996. Since 2002, India have had annual Summits with ASEAN. ASEAN and India commemorated the 20th anniversary of dialogue-level partnership and the 10th anniversary of Summit-level partnership with a Commemorative Summit in New Delhi under the theme 'ASEAN-India Partnership for Peace and Shared Prosperity' on December 20-21, 2012. The present Indian Prime minister has emphasised the importance of regional cooperation since his oath ceremony when he invited the heads of SAARC countries. Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s policy with respect to South East Asia is equally unlikely to be controversial: good relations with countries like Vietnam, Indonesia and Singapore are important not only economically but also to counter China’s growing influence in the region. This paper would endeavour to examine how under the leadership of Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi India looks towards the regional organisation in general and ASEAN in particular. Keywords: Look East Policy, Regional Organisation, Foreign Policy, Commercial Interest and Economic Interest.


DR ZAMBRY ABD KADIR: THE EFFORTS IN TRANSFORMING PERAK INTO A DEVELOPED STATE

Salina binti Khalid

Communication Officer,

Chief Minister Office,

Perak Darul Ridzuan

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Since Dr Zambry Abd Kadir appointment as the 11th Menteri Besar of Perak in February 2009, he has drawn a comprehensive transformation master plan. The Perak Amanjaya Master Plan is a long term development plan focusing not only on economic but also the social aspects. Through the master plan, Dr Zambry has spearheaded the state in the past six years, working closely with leaders and communities from all levels to transform the state towards achieving a fully developed status, in line with the National Vision 2020. The paper discusses the successes and challenges Dr Zamry faces, in his efforts to transform Perak into a developed state during his administrating the state in the past six (6) years and draws the way forward towards a developed state status for better quality of life of the Perakian. Key words: Amanjaya Master Plan, Social Challenges, Good Governance, Poverty Reduction


RURAL DEVELOPMENT: A LEGACY CONTINUES…

Roziya Abu & Ahmad Zaharuddin Sani Ahmad Sabri

School of Information Management,

Universiti Institut Teknologi MARA (Kedah)

Institut Pemikiran Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad,

Universiti Utara Malaysia

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Abstract || Full text

Traditionally, rural developments are centered on the intensive utilization of land natural resources such as agriculture and farming. Hence due to the globalization of production networks and urbanization, rural development is now about improving the quality of life and economic well-being of people living in remote and sparsely populated areas. These include economics, social and leadership improvements. Malaysia - home to the three great diasporic communities – Malays, Chinese and Indians, has always and will always being judge and asses us by the way we manage our internal economics, political and racial relationship. Notwithstanding, Malaysia has successfully transformed by Tun Abdul Razak Hussein’s enlightened recruitment of talent. Under his supervision and approach to leadership, economics and communal racial issues, many young rural Malaysian has step up and becomes qualified leaders and economist – passionate and committed to Malaysian development. His legacy continues with his son- our own Prime Minister Dato’ Seri Najib Tun Abdul Razak. Realizing the percentages of rural Malaysian lived below poverty line, he and his government accelerate with more plans and progression upon improving the quality of lives and incomes for all rural Malaysian. The introduction of new opportunities, entrepreneurships and many economics and social growth, have effectively boost the sustainability standards of living amongst Malaysian rural community. This paper will enlighten further the successful effort, struggle and determination done by both excellent leaders - Tun Abdul Razak Hussein and Dato’ Seri Najib Tun Abdul Razak in supporting rural Malaysian Development Key Words: Rural Development, Rural Social Development, Rural Leadership Development, Tun Abdul Razak Hussein, Dato’ Seri Najib Tun Abdul Razak.


GOOD CHARACTER, CORRUPTION, AND LEADERS: A NEW HISTORICIST PERSPECTIVE ON AL-GHAZĀLĪ’S AND MAHATHIR MOHAMAD’S VALUES AND THEIR TIMES OF ISOLATION.

John D’Alton

MonashUniversity,

PO Box 495 Eltham 3095,

Australia

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Former Malaysian Prime Minister Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad has often spoken on the theme of good character and against corruption, and asserts that leaders are particularly tempted by corruption, and that this in turn undermines society. Al-Ghazālī also warned against corruption and he taught that high moral standards must be gained through personal spiritual struggle against temptations. Such personal growth is essential for a leader to be respected and effective, and when leaders do not exhibit high moral standards then societies in turn become corrupted. The sustainability of any society depends on a level of moral strength that often dissipates over time. Ibn Khaldûn famously observed that the third generation of societies almost inevitably become lazy and corrupt, but this decline however is not inevitable if leaders develop a strong moral base for themselves and their people. This character can only be achieved through the specific disciplines of humility, honesty, selfcontrol, etc. as explained in depth by Al-Ghazālī. Mahathir too outlines a number of moral standards needed for any person or society to flourish, such as hard work, good behaviour, exemplary leadership, etc. This paper discusses aspects of the values of these two leaders, and the similarities between their approaches. It develops a New Historicist perspective and argues that the teachings of Mahathir and Al-Ghazālī on personal and societal moral excellence are derived from their particular historical contexts and their somewhat similar lived experiences of seclusion. Their times of isolation allowed them time to reflect and develop a coherent framework of teaching on values, and this is apparent in their works. Keywords: Values; Corruption; Leadership; Al-Ghazālī; Mahathir Mohamad.


TADBIR URUS DAN PEMBANGUNAN BELIA: PENGALAMAN JAWATANKUASA KEMAJUAN DAN KESELAMATAN KAMPUNG

Siti Alida John Abdullah,Asmah Laili Hj Yeon, Rozita Arshad, Alias Azhar &  Zainal Amin Ayub

Pusat Pengajian Kerajaan,

Pusat Pengajian Undang-Undang,

University Utara Malaysia

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Abstrak || Full text

Belia adalah penggerak utama dalam pembangunan. Mereka perlu diberi peluang untuk menyuarakan pandangan dan dilibatkan secara langsung dalam pembuatan keputusan mengenai polisi-polisi pembangunan. Sebagai salah satu pemegang taruh, mereka perlu terlibat dalam tadbir urus di beberapa peringkat dalam pentadbiran negara, bukan hanya untuk memenuhi keperluan pembangunan berdasarkan kehendak mereka tetapi juga untuk menyediakan mereka menjadi pemimpin-pemimpin negara di masa hadapan. Maka, kajian ini ingin menentukan sejauh mana peluang diadakan untuk melibatkan belia dalam proses-proses pembuatan keputusan terutama di akar umbi melalui Jawatankuasa Kemajuan dan Keselamatan Kampung (JKKK) dan juga kesedaran ahli-ahli JKKK mengenai kepentingan penglibatan belia dalam pembuatan keputusan. Data dikumpulkan melalui pengedaran sebanyak 752 soal selidik kepada ahli-ahli JKKK di Semenanjung Malaysia. Statistik diskriptif digunakan untuk melaporkan dapatan kajian. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan penglibatan yang sederhana oleh belia dalam JKKK dan tingkat kesedaran adalah tinggi dalam kalangan responden tentang keperluan penglibatan belia dalam pembuatan keputusan. Kata kunci: Tadbir urus, Jawatankuasa Kemajuan dan Keselamatan Kampung, Belia, Pembuatan keputusan.


Nilai Nyawa Statistik dan Pengurusan Bencana

Abu Sufian Abu Bakar

Pusat Pengajian Ekonomi,

Kewangan dan Perbankan

Universiti Utara Malaysia

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Abstrak || Full text

Isu keselamatan nyawa sering kali mendapat liputan utama masyarakat. Musibah banjir besar yang berlaku baru-baru ini telah menyedarkan orang ramai peri pentingnya langkah-langkah pencegahan diambil segera walaupun ia mengakibatkan peruntukan dana awam yang besar. Namun begitu pembuat dasar seringkali gagal untuk memperuntukan dana yang sewajarnya bagi mencegah berlakunya kehilangan nyawa akibat sesuatu bencana kerana tidak dapat mengukur nilai nyawa yang dapat diselamatkan jika langkah-langkah pencegahan dilakukan dengan memperuntukan sejumlah dana yang mencukupi. Kajian yang dilakukan ini adalah bertujuan untuk mengukur nilai nyawa statistik (VSL) pengguna di Malaysia dengan menggunakan teknik keutamaan dinyata (stated preference-SP). Nilai VSL yang dianggar dengan menggunakan teknik SP adalah antara RM723,024 hingga RM1,035,693. Kajian ini turut mendapati beberapa faktor demografi yang dianggar menyokong dapatan kajian lepas. Faktor pendidikan berhubung secara positif dengan nilai VSL, tetapi faktor umur tidak seperti yang dijangka, di mana umur berhubung secara negatif terhadap nilai VSL. Bagi faktor jantina, wanita mempunyai nilai VSL yang lebih tinggi berbanding lelaki. Nilai VSL ini boleh dijadikan sebagai asas kepada pembuat dasar apabila ingin menganggar kos dan faedah dari projek awam yang melibatkan nyawa. Kata Kunci: Nilai Nyawa Statistik, Analisis Kos Faedah, Teknik Keutamaan Dinyata (SP), Nilai Ekonomi.


RETORIK DALAM PENGUCAPAN STRATEGI LAUTAN BIRU 

Zamimah Osman, Sharifah Fazliyaton Shaik Ismail & Nuraini Yusoff

UUM Press,

Pusat Pengajian Pendidikan & Bahasa Moden

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Abstrak || Full text

Strategi Lautan Biru yang diperkenalkan oleh Kim dan Mauborgne (2005) menekankan peri pentingnya organisasi mencari potensi dan ruang baharu yang belum lagi diterokai oleh organisasi lain untuk memastikan organisasi tersebut berkembang maju selain bebas daripada persaingan yang sengit. Strategi ini turut diketengahkan oleh pemimpin di Malaysia, khusus Dato’ Seri Najib Tun Razak sebagai salah satu usaha untuk memacu negara ke pesada dunia. Memandangkan konsep Strategi Lautan Biru ini merupakan konsep yang agak baharu, rakyat di negara ini, khususnya penjawat awam perlu diberi pendedahan yang mendalam serta terperinci untuk membolehkan strategi ini dilaksanakan dengan berkesan. Pemimpin negara menggunakan ucapan awam yang sarat dengan retorik tertentu sebagai salah satu wadah untuk memperkenalkan Strategi Lautan Biru kepada rakyat. Makalah ini membincangkan strategi retorik wacana penulisan teks ucapan Dato’ Seri Najib Tun Razak dan dua orang menteri kabinet terpilih dengan menggunakan pendekatan analisis wacana yang berlandaskan prinsip utama jenis retorik penulisan Warren dan Brooks (1979). Dato’ Seri Najib Tun Abdul Razak didapati menggunakan tiga jenis retorik, iaitu jenis persuasif, jenis eksposisi dan jenis deskriptif dalam teks ucapan Strategi Lautan Biru beliau. Manakala, dua orang menteri kabinet terpilih pula cenderung menggunakan retorik jenis eksposisi dan jenis persuasif. Analisis memperlihatkan bahawa retorik jenis argumentatif dan jenis naratif tidak digunakan dalam penulisan teks ucapan yang dikaji. Retorik jenis persuasif, eksposisi dan deskriptif sesuai digunakan dalam wacana penulisan teks ucapan yang menekankan kepada penyampaian mesej atau idea untuk membina pengertian dan semangat saling memperoleh kerjasama melalui bahasa. Penggunaan ketiga-tiga jenis retorik ini oleh ketiga-tiga pemimpin yang dikaji dalam teks ucapan Strategi Lautan Biru mereka bukan sahaja meningkatkan wibawa retorik ketiga-tiga perucap ini malahan turut membantu memberi kesedaran dan kefahaman kepada khalayak tentang kepentingan pelaksanaan strategi ini. Kata kunci: Retorik penulisan, jenis retorik, persuasif, eksposisi, deskriptif.


MEWUJUDKAN SISTEM BERPRESIDEN MURNI DI INDONESIA (Sebuah Gagasan dalam Ikhtiar Penyempurnaan Sistem Perlembagaan Indonesia)

Abdul Bari Azed

Fakultas Hukum,

Universitas Indonesia

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Abstrak ||Full text

Undang-Undang Dasar 1945 yang diperkenankan oleh PPKI pada 18 Ogos 1945 dan perubahan pada awal era reformasi membentuk sistem pemerintahan berpresiden. Pengukuhan sistem berpresiden merupakan salah satu terma Perjanjian Dasar Panitia Ad Hoc I Badan Pekerja Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat ketika menyusun pelan rancangan perubahan UUD1945 (1999-2002). Namun demikian, UUD 1945 hasil perubahan dari pelbagai peruntukan UU masih menunjukkan pengaruh kuatnya “rasa Parlementer”. Atas dasar itu, telah berkembang pemikiran dari berbagai tingkat di tanah air untuk melakukan pengukuhan sistem berpresiden dalam bentuk pemurnian sistem berpresiden, terutamanya melalui pindaan Perlembagaan 1945 dalam rangka menyempurnakan sistem perlembagaan Indonesia pada masa akan datang. Tujuannya adalah agar Presiden dan Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat berada dalam kedudukan yang tepat dengan mandat kuasa yang tidak bertindih dan dalam garis sempadan yang tegas dan tulus sebagaimana sistem berpresiden pada umumnya yang berlaku di negaranegara maju dalam sebuah sistem yang saling mengawal dan mengimbangi (checks and balances) secara efektif. Selain itu, ianya sebagai rangka untuk mewujudkan badan kepresidenan yang kuat dan efektif serta efisien dalam menjalankan tugasan fungsi pemerintahan (eksekutif) supaya ianya sesuai dengan mandat majoriti pengundi dalam pilihan raya umum secara langsung. Kata kunci: sistem berpresiden, Presiden, DPR, mengawal dan mengimbangi.


ADDRESS THE CHALLENGES OF TOURISM BUSINESSES TO SURVIVE IN OFFSEASON CLOSURES

Chhanda Biswas

School of Tourism,

Hospitality and Environmental Management,

Universiti Utara Malaysia

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Abstract || Full text

This study explores the causes and impact of seasonality in the perspective of hotel industry in order to fulfill the needs of handling seasonality problem. The study purpose is to address the challenges of seasonality and provide some guidelines and focuses the strategies and policies how and in which ways tourism destinations of different countries modify tourism seasonality’s feature so that hotel sector does not face so many difficulties in the off-peak seasons. A qualitative field has been carried out to examine the perceptions of the hoteliers by conducting interview. The study’s findings report that seasonal changes may happen in the case of the customer demand based on institutional vacation, weather etc. For these reasons, hotel generates very low profit and ultimately, hotel cannot afford permanent employees and switching tendency of them increase. This study will contribute to the hoteliers to know about the problems and how it can be solved and ultimately this study can help to improve hotel industry. For further research, researchers can get clear idea about seasonality and they can proceed through questionnaire survey by applying quantitative method to know the effectiveness of those strategies in the perspective of the hotel industry. Keywords: seasonality, hotel industry, off-peak season.